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The Detailed Organization of the Human Cerebellum Estimated by Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Within the Individual

By Aihuiping Xue, Ru Kong, Qing Yang, Mark C. Eldaief, Peter Angeli, Lauren M. DiNicola, Rodrigo M. Braga, Randy L. Buckner, B.T. Thomas Yeo

Posted 15 Sep 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.09.15.297911

Distinct regions of the cerebellum connect to separate regions of the cerebral cortex forming a complex topography. While key properties of cerebellar organization have been revealed in group-averaged data, in-depth study of individuals provides an opportunity to discover functional-anatomical features that emerge at a higher spatial resolution. Here functional connectivity MRI was used to examine the cerebellum of two intensively-sampled individuals (each scanned across 31 MRI sessions). Connectivity to somatomotor cortex showed the expected crossed laterality and inversion of the body maps between the anterior and posterior lobes. A surprising discovery was connectivity to the primary visual cortex along the vermis with evidence for representation of the central field. Within the hemispheres, each individual displayed a hierarchical progression from the inverted anterior lobe somatomotor map through to higher-order association zones. The hierarchy ended near Crus I/II and then progressed in reverse order through to the upright somatomotor map in the posterior lobe. Evidence for a third set of networks was found in the most posterior extent of the cerebellum. Detailed analysis of the higher-order association networks around the Crus I/II apex revealed robust representations of two distinct networks linked to the default network, multiple networks linked to cognitive control, as well as a separate representation of a language network. While idiosyncratic spatial details emerged between subjects, each of these networks could be detected in both individuals, and small seed regions placed within the cerebellum recapitulated the full extent of the spatially-specific cerebral networks. The observation of multiple networks in juxtaposed regions at the Crus I/II apex confirms the importance of this zone to higher-order cognitive function and reveals new organizational details. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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