While cytosolic Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones have been extensively studied, less is known about how the ER Hsp70 and Hsp90 paralogs (BiP and Grp94) recognize clients and influence their folding. Here, we examine how BiP and Grp94 influence the folding of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). Full-length proIGF2 is composed of an insulin-like hormone and an E-peptide that has sequence characteristics of an intrinsically disordered region. We find that the E-peptide region allows proIGF2 to form oligomers. BiP and Grp94 influence both the folding and the oligomerization of proIGF2. BiP and Grp94 exert a similar holdase function on proIGF2 folding by preferentially binding the proIGF2 unfolded state, rather than stabilizing specific folding intermediates and changing the proIGF2 folding process. In contrast, BiP and Grp94 exert counteracting effects on proIGF2 oligomerization. BiP suppresses proIGF2 oligomerization under both ADP and ATP conditions. Interestingly, Grp94 can enhance proIGF2 oligomerization when Grp94 adopts an open conformation (ADP conditions), but not when Grp94 is in the closed conformation (ATP conditions). We propose that BiP and Grp94 regulate the assembly of proIGF2 oligomers, and that regulated oligomerization may enable proIGF2 to be effectively packaged for export from the ER to the Golgi. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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