Multi-modal measurements of single cell profiles are a powerful tool for characterizing cell states and regulatory mechanisms. While current methods allow profiling of RNA along with either chromatin or protein levels, connecting chromatin state to protein levels remains a barrier. Here, we developed PHAGE-ATAC, a method that uses engineered camelid single-domain antibody (‘nanobody’)-displaying phages for simultaneous single-cell measurement of surface proteins, chromatin accessibility profiles, and mtDNA-based clonal tracing through a massively parallel droplet-based assay of single-cell transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing (ATAC-seq). We demonstrate PHAGE-ATAC for multimodal analysis in primary human immune cells and for sample multiplexing. Finally, we construct a synthetic high-complexity phage library for selection of novel antigen-specific nanobodies that bind cells of particular molecular profiles, opening a new avenue for protein detection, cell characterization and screening with single-cell genomics. ### Competing Interest Statement A.R. is a founder and equity holder of Celsius Therapeutics, an equity holder in Immunitas Therapeutics and until August 31, 2020 was an SAB member of Syros Pharmaceuticals, Neogene Therapeutics, Asimov and ThermoFisher Scientific. From August 1, 2020, A.R. is an employee of Genentech. The Broad Institute has filed for a patent related to PHAGE-ATAC where E.F. and A.R. are named inventors.
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