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Neutralizing antibodies elicited by HIV-1 coevolve with viral Envs in distinctive patterns, in some cases acquiring substantial breadth. Here we show that primary HIV-1 Envs, when expressed by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques, elicited patterns of Env-antibody coevolution strikingly similar to those in humans. This included conserved immunogenetic, structural and chemical solutions to epitope recognition and precise Env-amino acid substitutions, insertions and deletions leading to virus persistence. The structure of one rhesus antibody, capable of neutralizing 49% of a 208-strain panel, revealed a V2-apex mode of recognition like that of human bNAbs PGT145/PCT64-35M. Another rhesus antibody bound the CD4-binding site by CD4 mimicry mirroring human bNAbs 8ANC131/CH235/VRC01. Virus-antibody coevolution in macaques can thus recapitulate developmental features of human bNAbs, thereby guiding HIV-1 immunogen design. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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