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With the relatively serious global epidemic outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection, public concerns focus on not only clinical therapeutic measures and public quarantine for this disease but also the development of vaccines. The technical design of our SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine provides a viral antigen that enables the exposure of more than one structural protein based upon the antibody composition of COVID-19 patients' convalescent serum. This design led to valid immunity with increasing neutralizing antibody titers and a CTL response detected post-immunization of this vaccine by two injections in rhesus macaques. Further, this elicited immunoprotection in macaques enables not only to restrain completely viral replication in tissues of immunized animals, compared to the adjuvant control and those immunized by an RBD peptide vaccine, but also to significantly alleviate inflammatory lesion in lung tissues in histo-pathologic detection, compared to the adjuvant control with developed interstitial pneumonia. The data obtained from these macaques immunized with the inactivated vaccine or RBD peptide vaccine suggest that immunity with a clinically protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection should include not only specific neutralizing antibodies but also specific CTL responses against at least the S and N antigens. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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