Centenarian Controls Increase Variant Effect-sizes by an average two-fold in an Extreme Case-Extreme Control Analysis of Alzheimer's Disease
Sven J. van der Lee,
Iris E. Jansen,
Natasja van Schoor,
Marcel J.T. Reinders,
Wiesje M. van der Flier,
Posted 13 Apr 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/298018 (published DOI: 10.1038/s41431-018-0273-5)
Posted 13 Apr 2018
The detection of genetic loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires large numbers of cases and controls because variant effect-sizes are mostly small. We hypothesized that variant effect-sizes should increase when individuals who represent the extreme ends of a disease spectrum are considered, as their genomes are assumed to be maximally enriched or depleted with disease-associated genetic variants. We used 1,073 extensively phenotyped AD cases with relatively young age at onset as extreme cases (66.3±7.9 years), 1,664 age-matched controls (66.0±6.5 years) and 255 cognitively healthy centenarians as extreme controls (101.4±1.3 years). We estimated the effect-size of 29 variants that were previously associated with AD in genome-wide association studies. Comparing extreme AD-cases with centenarian-controls increased the variant effect-size relative to published effect-sizes by on average 1.90-fold (SE=0.29, p=9.0x10-4). The effect-size increase was largest for the rare high-impact TREM2 (R74H) variant (6.5-fold), and significant for variants in/near ECHDC3 (4.6-fold), SLC24A4-RIN3 (4.5-fold), NME8 (3.8-fold), PLCG2 (3.3-fold), APOE-ε2 (2.2-fold) and APOE-ε4 (2.0-fold). Comparing extreme phenotypes enabled us to replicate the AD association for 10 variants (p<0.05) in relatively small samples. The increase in effect-sizes depended mainly on using centenarians as extreme controls: the average variant effect-size was not increased in a comparison of extreme AD cases and age-matched controls (0.94-fold, p=6.8x10-1), suggesting that on average the tested genetic variants did not explain the extremity of the AD-cases. Concluding, using centenarians as extreme controls in AD case-controls studies boosts the variant effect-size by on average two-fold, allowing the replication of disease-association in relatively small samples.
- Downloaded 357 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 121,881
- In genetics: 4,468
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 190,105
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 184,696
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!