As an essential and fundamental process of life, cell development involves large-scale reorganization of the three-dimensional genome architecture, which forms the basis of gene regulation. Here, we develop a landscape-switching model to explore the microscopic chromosomal structural origin of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and the somatic cell reprogramming. We show that chromosome structure exhibits significant compartment-switching in the unit of topologically associating domain. We find that the chromosome during differentiation undergoes monotonic compaction with spatial re-positioning of active and inactive chromosomal loci towards the chromosome surface and interior, respectively. In contrast, an over-expanded chromosome, which exhibits universal localization of loci at the chromosomal surface with erasing the structural characteristics formed in the somatic cells, is observed during reprogramming. We suggest an early distinct differentiation pathway from the ESC to the terminally differentiated cell, giving rise to early bifurcation on the Waddington landscape for the ESC differentiation. Our theoretical model including the non-equilibrium effects, draws a picture of the highly irreversible cell differentiation and reprogramming processes, in line with the experiments. The predictions from our model provide a physical understanding of cell differentiation and reprogramming from the chromosomal structural and dynamical perspective and can be tested by future experiments. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
- Downloaded 161 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 128,229
- In biophysics: 4,924
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 145,442
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 128,803
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!