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NAD+ Redox Imbalance in the Heart Exacerbates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

By Ying Ann Chiao, Akash Chakraborty, Christine Light, Rong Tian, Junichi Sadoshima, Xianjian Shi, Haiwei Gu, Chi Fung Lee

Posted 04 Jul 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.07.03.183111

Background: Diabetes is a risk factor of heart failure and promotes cardiac dysfunction. Diabetic tissues are associated with NAD+ redox imbalance; however, the hypothesis that NAD+ redox imbalance leads to dysfunction of diabetic hearts has not been tested. In this study, we employed mouse models with altered NAD+ redox balance to test the hypothesis. Methods and Results: Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice by streptozotocin injections, and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was allowed to develop for 16 weeks. Diabetic stress led to cardiac dysfunction and lowered NAD+/NADH ratio. This diabetogenic regimen was administered to cardiac-specific knockout mice of complex I subunit Ndufs4 (cKO), a model with lowered cardiac NAD+/NADH ratio without baseline dysfunction. Cardiac NAD+ redox imbalance in cKO hearts exacerbated systolic and diastolic dysfunction of diabetic mice in both sexes. Collagen levels and transcript analyses of fibrosis and extracellular matrix-dependent pathways did not show change in diabetic cKO hearts, suggesting that the exacerbated cardiac dysfunction was likely due to cardiomyocyte dysfunction. We found that cardiac NAD+ redox imbalance promoted superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) acetylation, protein oxidation, induced troponin I S150 phosphorylation and impaired energetics in diabetic cKO hearts. Importantly, elevation of cardiac NAD+ levels by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) normalized NAD+ redox balance, over-expression alleviated cardiac dysfunction and reversed pathogenic mechanisms in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Our results show that NAD+ redox imbalance to regulate protein acetylation and phosphorylation is a critical mediator of the progression of DCM, and suggest the therapeutic potential of harnessing NAD+ metabolism in DCM.

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