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Order and disorder - an integrative structure of the full-length human growth hormone receptor

By Noah Kassem, Raul Araya-Secchi, Katrine Bugge, Abigail Barclay, Helena Steinocher, Adree Khondker, Aneta J. Lenard, Jochen Bürck, Anne S. Ulrich, Martin Cramer Pedersen, Yong Wang, Maikel C. Rheinstädter, Per Amstrup Pedersen, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen, Lise Arleth, Birthe B. Kragelund

Posted 27 Jun 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.06.25.171116

Despite the many physiological and pathophysiological functions of the human growth hormone receptor (hGHR), a detailed understanding of its modus operandi is hindered by the lack of structural information of the entire receptor at the molecular level. Due to its relatively small size (70 kDa) and large content of structural disorder (>50%), this membrane protein falls between the cracks of conventional high-resolution structural biology methods. Here, we study the structure of the full-length hGHR in nanodiscs with small angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS) as the foundation. We developed an approach in which we combined SAXS, X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy obtained on the individual domains and integrated the data through molecular dynamics simulations to interpret SAXS data on the full-length hGHR in nanodiscs. The structure of the hGHR was determined in its monomeric state and provides the first experimental model of any full-length cytokine receptor in a lipid membrane. Combined, our results highlight that the three domains of the hGHR are free to reorient relative to each other, resulting in a broad structural ensemble. Our work exemplifies how integrating experimental data from several techniques computationally, may enable the characterisation of otherwise inaccessible structures of membrane proteins with long disordered regions, a widespread phenomenon in biology. To understand orchestration of cellular signalling by disordered chains, the hGHR is archetypal and its structure emphasises that we need to take a much broader, ensemble view on signalling. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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