Aims/hypothesisGiven the potential shared aetiology between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, we aimed to identify any genetic regions associated with both diseases. For associations where there is a shared signal and the allele that increases risk to one disease also increases risk to the other, inference about shared aetiology could be made, with the potential to develop therapeutic strategies to treat or prevent both diseases simultaneously. Alternatively, if a genetic signal colocalises with divergent effect directions, it could provide valuable biological insight into how the association affects the two diseases differently. MethodsUsing publicly available type 2 diabetes summary statistics from a genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of European ancestry individuals (74,124 cases and 824,006 controls) and type 1 diabetes GWAS summary statistics from a meta-analysis of studies on individuals from the UK and Sardinia (7,467 cases and 10,218 controls), we identified all regions of 0.5 Mb that contained variants associated with both diseases (false discovery rate<0.01). In each region, we performed forward stepwise logistic regression to identify independent association signals, then examined colocalisation of each type 1 diabetes signal with each type 2 diabetes signal using coloc. Any association with a colocalisation posterior probability of [≥]0.9 was considered a genuine shared association with both diseases. ResultsOf the 81 association signals from 42 genetic regions that showed association with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, four association signals colocalised between both diseases (posterior probability [≥]0.9): (i) chromosome 16q23.1, near Chymotripsinogen B1 (CTRB1) / Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance Protein 1 (BCAR1), which has been previously identified; (ii) chromosome 11p15.5, near the Insulin (INS) gene; (iii) chromosome 4p16.3, near Transmembrane protein 129 (TMEM129), and (iv) chromosome 1p31.3, near Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1). In each of these regions, the effect of genetic variants on type 1 diabetes was in the opposite direction to the effect on type 2 diabetes. Use of additional datasets also supported the previously identified colocalisation on chromosome 9p24.2, near the GLIS Family Zinc Finger Protein 3 (GLIS3) gene, in this case with a concordant direction of effect. Conclusions/interpretationThat four of five association signals that colocalise between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are in opposite directions suggests a complex genetic relationship between the two diseases.
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