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This paper describes outcomes of the 2019 Cryo-EM Map-based Model Metrics Challenge sponsored by EMDataResource (www.emdataresource.org). The goals of this challenge were (1) to assess the quality of models that can be produced using current modeling software, (2) to check the reproducibility of modeling results from different software developers and users, and (3) compare the performance of current metrics used for evaluation of models. The focus was on near-atomic resolution maps with an innovative twist: three of four target maps formed a resolution series (1.8 to 3.1 Angstrom) from the same specimen and imaging experiment. Tools developed in previous challenges were expanded for managing, visualizing and analyzing the 63 submitted coordinate models, and several novel metrics were introduced. The results permit specific recommendations to be made about validating near-atomic cryo-EM structures both in the context of individual laboratory experiments and holdings of structure data archives such as the Protein Data Bank. Our findings demonstrate the relatively high accuracy and reproducibility of cryo-EM models derived from these benchmark maps by 13 participating teams, representing both widely used and novel modeling approaches. We also evaluate the pros and cons of the commonly used metrics to assess model quality and recommend the adoption of multiple scoring parameters to provide full and objective annotation and assessment of the model, reflective of the observed density in the cryo-EM map. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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