Precise Localization and Dynamic Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in the Brain Nuclei of Infected Mice
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a pathogen that causes severe vector-borne zoonotic diseases, thereby posing a serious threat to human health. Although JEV is potentially neurotropic, its pathogenesis and distribution in the host have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an infected mouse model was established using a highly virulent P3 strain of JEV. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, combined with anatomical imaging of the mouse brain, were used to dynamically localize the virus and construct three-dimensional (3D) images. Consequently, onset of mild clinical symptoms occurred in some mice at 84h post JEV infection, while most mice displayed typical neurological symptoms at 144h post infection. Moreover, brain pathology revealed typical changes associated with non-suppurative encephalitis, which lasted up to 192h. The earliest detection of viral antigen was achieved at 72h post infection, in the thalamus and medulla oblongata . At 144h post infection, the positive viral antigen signals were mainly distributed in the cerebral cortex, olfactory area, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem regions in mice. At 192h post infection, the antigen signals gradually decreased, and the localization of JEV tended to concentrate in the cerebrum and thalamus, while no viral antigen was detected in the brain at 504h post infection. In this model, the viral antigen was first expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (Rt), at a consistent concentration. The expression of the viral antigen in the hippocampal CA2 region, the anterior olfactory nucleus, and the deep mesencephalic nucleus was high and persistent. The 3D images showed that viral signals were mostly concentrated in the parietal cortex, occipital lobe, and hippocampus, near the midsagittal plane. In the early stages of infection in mice, a large number of viral antigens were detected in denatured and necrotic neurons, suggesting that JEV directly causes neuronal damage. From the time of its entry, JEV is widely distributed in the central nervous system thereby causing extensive damage.
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