Biomimetic sponges improve muscle structure and function following volumetric muscle loss
Skeletal muscle is inept in regenerating after traumatic injuries such as volumetric muscle loss (VML) due to significant loss of basal lamina and the resident satellite cells. Currently, there are no approved therapies for the treatment of muscle tissue following trauma. In this study, biomimetic sponges composed of gelatin, collagen, laminin-111, and FK-506 were used for the treatment of VML in a rodent model. We observed that biomimetic sponge treatment improved muscle structure and function while modulating inflammation and limiting the extent of fibrotic tissue deposition. Specifically, sponge treatment increased the total number of myofibers, type 2B fiber cross-sectional area, myosin: collagen ratio, myofibers with central nuclei, and peak isometric torque compared to untreated VML injured muscles. As an acellular scaffold, biomimetic sponges provide a promising off-the-shelf clinical therapy for VML. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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