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Variants close to the VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B locus are associated with altered risk of type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Whilst previous functional work has suggested roles for VPS13C and C2CD4A in disease development, none has explored the role of C2CD4B. Here, we show that systemic inactivation of C2cd4b in mice leads to marked, but highly sexually dimorphic, changes in body weight and glucose homeostasis. Female C2cd4b mice display unchanged body weight but abnormal glucose tolerance and defective in vivo, but not in vitro, insulin secretion, associated with a marked decrease in follicle stimulating hormone levels. In sharp contrast, male C2cd4b null mice displayed normal glucose tolerance but an increase in body weight and fasting glycemia after maintenance on high fat diet. No metabolic disturbances were observed after global inactivation of C2cd4a in mice, or in pancreatic β cell function at larval stages in C2cd4ab null zebrafish. These studies suggest that C2cd4b may act centrally to influence sex-dependent circuits which control pancreatic β cell function and glucose tolerance in rodents. However, the absence of sexual dimorphism in the impact of diabetes risk variants argues for additional roles for C2CD4A or VPS13C in the control of glucose homeostasis in man. ### Competing Interest Statement G.R. has received grant funding and consultancy fees from Sun Pharmaceuticals and Les Laboratoires Servier.

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