PSGL-1 has recently been identified as an HIV restriction factor that inhibits HIV DNA synthesis and more potently, virion infectivity. But the underlying mechanisms of these inhibitions are unknown. Here we show that PSGL-1 directly binds to cellular actin filaments (F-actin) and restricts actin dynamics, which leads to inhibition of HIV DNA synthesis. PSGL-1 is incorporated into nascent virions and restricts actin dynamics in the virions, which partially accounts for the inhibition of virion infectivity. More potently, PSGL-1 inhibits incorporation of Env proteins into nascent virions, leading to loss of envelope spikes on the virions as shown by Cryo-electron microscopy and super-resolution imaging. This loss is associated with a profound defect in viral entry. Mechanistically, PSGL-1 binds gp41 and sequesters gp41 at the plasma membrane, explaining the inhibition of Env incorporation in nascent virions. PSGL-1's dual anti-HIV mechanisms represent novel strategies of human cells to defend against HIV infection. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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