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Direct and indirect effects of maternal, paternal, and offspring genotypes: Trio-GCTA

By Espen Moen Eilertsen, Eshim Shahid Jami, Tom A McAdams, Laurie J Hannigan, Alexandra Havdahl, Per Minor Magnus, David M Evans, Eivind Ystrom

Posted 16 May 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.15.097840

Indirect genetic effects from relatives may result in misleading quantifications of heritability, but can also be of interest in their own right. In this paper we propose Trio-GCTA, a model for separating direct and indirect genetic effects when genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data have been collected from parent-offspring trios. The model is applicable to phenotypes obtained from any of the family members. We discuss appropriate parameter interpretations and apply the method to four exemplar phenotypes; offspring birth weight, offspring temperament, maternal relationship satisfaction, and paternal body-mass index, using real data from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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