Convergent Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Convalescent Individuals
Davide F. Robbiani,
Julio C. C. Lorenzi,
Christopher O. Barnes,
Thiago Y. Oliveira,
Katrina G Millard,
Rhonda G. Kost,
Spencer T. Chen,
Alison W. Ashbrook,
John E Pak,
Kathryn E. Huey-Tubman,
Pauline R. Hoffman,
Anthony P. West,
Charles M. Rice,
Pamela J. Bjorkman,
Paul D. Bieniasz,
Michel C. Nussenzweig
Posted 15 May 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.13.092619
Posted 15 May 2020
During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. Virus entry into cells depends on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S). Although there is no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. Here we report on 149 COVID-19 convalescent individuals. Plasmas collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal neutralizing titers ranging from undetectable in 33% to below 1:1000 in 79%, while only 1% showed titers >1:5000. Antibody cloning revealed expanded clones of RBD-specific memory B cells expressing closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titers, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on RBD neutralized at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as low as single digit ng/mL. Thus, most convalescent plasmas obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective. ### Competing Interest Statement In connection with this work The Rockefeller University has filed a provisional patent application on which D.F.R. and M.C.N are inventors.
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