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Methods for highly multiplexed RNA imaging are limited in spatial resolution, and thus in their ability to localize transcripts to nanoscale and subcellular compartments. We adapt expansion microscopy, which physically expands biological specimens, for long-read untargeted and targeted in situ RNA sequencing. We applied untargeted expansion sequencing (ExSeq) to mouse brain, yielding readout of thousands of genes, including splice variants and novel transcripts. Targeted ExSeq yielded nanoscale-resolution maps of RNAs throughout dendrites and spines in neurons of the mouse hippocampus, revealing patterns across multiple cell types; layer-specific cell types across mouse visual cortex; and the organization and position-dependent states of tumor and immune cells in a human metastatic breast cancer biopsy. Thus ExSeq enables highly multiplexed mapping of RNAs, from nanoscale to system scale. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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