A new paradigm for Prelamin A proteolytic processing by ZMPSTE24: the upstream SY^LL cleavage occurs first and there is no CaaX processing by ZMPSTE24
Eric D. Spear,
Timothy D. Babatz,
Yin Yao Dong,
Shubhashish M.M. Mukhopadhyay,
Nicola A Burgess-Brown,
Ashley CW Pike,
Stephen G. Young,
Elisabeth P Carpenter
Posted 13 May 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.13.093849
Posted 13 May 2020
Human ZMPSTE24, an integral membrane zinc metalloprotease, is required for conversion of prelamin A to mature lamin A, a component of the nuclear lamina and failure of this processing causes premature ageing disorders. ZMPSTE24 has also been implicated in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and in viral-host response mechanisms, but to date its only confirmed substrate is the precursor for lamin A. Prelamin A is thought to undergo four C-terminal post-translational modifications in the following order: farnesylation, SIM tripeptide cleavage, carboxymethylation and upstream “SY^LL” cleavage. Here we present evidence that the sequence of events does not follow the accepted dogma. We assessed cleavage of long human prelamin A sequence peptides by purified human ZMPSTE24 combined with FRET and mass spectrometry to detect products. Surprisingly, we found that the “SY^LL” cleavage occurs before and independent of the C-terminal CSIM modifications. We also found that ZMPSTE24 does not perform the predicted C^SIM tripeptide cleavage, but rather it removes an IM dipeptide. ZMPSTE24 can perform a tripeptide cleavage with a canonical CaaX box (C: cysteine; a: aliphatic; X: any residue), but the C-terminus of prelamin A is not a true CaaX sequence. Regardless of the C-terminal modifications of prelamin A, ZMPSTE24 can perform upstream SY^LL cleavage, thus removing the unwanted farnesylated C-terminus. Therefore, it is failure of SY^LL cleavage, not the C-terminal processing that is the likely cause of progeroid disorders.
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