The genus Armillaria spp. (Fungi, Basidiomycota) includes devastating pathogens of temperate forests and saprotrophs that decay wood. Pathogenic and saprotrophic Armillaria species can efficiently colonize and decay woody substrates, however, mechanisms of wood penetration and colonization are poorly known. We assayed the colonization and decay of autoclaved spruce roots using the conifer-specialists Armillaria ostoyae and A. cepistipes using transcriptomic and proteomic data. Transcript and protein levels were altered more extensively in the saprotrophic A. cepistipes than in the pathogenic A. ostoyae and in invasive mycelia of both species compared to their rhizomorphs. Diverse suites of carbohydrate-active enzyme genes (CAZymes), in particular pectinolytic ones and expansins, were upregulated in both species, whereas ligninolytic genes were mostly downregulated. Our gene expression data, together with previous comparative genomic and decay-chemistry analyses suggest that wood decay by Armillaria differs from that of typical white-rot fungi and shows features resembling soft rot. We propose that Armillaria species have modified the ancestral white-rot machinery so that it allows for selective ligninolysis based on environmental conditions and/or host types. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
- Downloaded 267 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 92,722
- In ecology: 2,929
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 61,237
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 90,535
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!