Identification of Drugs Blocking SARS-CoV-2 Infection using Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Colonic Organoids
Benjamin E. Nilsson-Payant,
Huanhuan Joyce Chen,
Robert E. Schwartz,
David D Ho,
Fong Cheng Pan,
Posted 02 May 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.02.073320
Posted 02 May 2020
The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are currently no therapeutic options for mitigating this disease due to lack of a vaccine and limited knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 biology. As a result, there is an urgent need to create new disease models to study SARS-CoV-2 biology and to screen for therapeutics using human disease-relevant tissues. COVID-19 patients typically present with respiratory symptoms including cough, dyspnea, and respiratory distress, but nearly 25% of patients have gastrointestinal indications including anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Moreover, these symptoms are associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes1. Here, we report using human pluripotent stem cell-derived colonic organoids (hPSC-COs) to explore the permissiveness of colonic cell types to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Single cell RNA-seq and immunostaining showed that the putative viral entry receptor ACE2 is expressed in multiple hESC-derived colonic cell types, but highly enriched in enterocytes. Multiple cell types in the COs can be infected by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-entry virus, which was further validated in vivo using a humanized mouse model. We used hPSC-derived COs in a high throughput platform to screen 1280 FDA-approved drugs against viral infection. Mycophenolic acid and quinacrine dihydrochloride were found to block the infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-entry virus in COs both in vitro and in vivo, and confirmed to block infection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study established both in vitro and in vivo organoid models to investigate infection of SARS-CoV-2 disease-relevant human colonic cell types and identified drugs that blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection, suitable for rapid clinical testing. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors declare the following competing interests: R.E.S. is on the scientific advisory board of Miromatrix Inc. The other authors have no competing of interest.
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