Prediction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) helps to grasp molecular roots of disease. However, web-lab experiments to predict PPIs are limited and costly. Using machine-learning-based frameworks can not only automatically identify PPIs, but also provide new ideas for drug research and development from a promising alternative. We present a novel deep-forest-based method for PPIs prediction. First, pseudo amino acid composition (PAAC), autocorrelation descriptor (Auto), multivariate mutual information (MMI), composition-transition-distribution (CTD), and amino acid composition PSSM (AAC-PSSM), and dipeptide composition PSSM (DPC-PSSM) are adopted to extract and construct the pattern of PPIs. Secondly, elastic net is utilized to optimize the initial feature vectors and boost the predictive performance. Finally, GcForest-PPI model based on deep forest is built up. Benchmark experiments reveal that the accuracy values of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Helicobacter pylori are 95.44% and 89.26%. We also apply GcForest-PPI on independent test sets and CD9-core network, crossover network, and cancer-specific network. The evaluation shows that GcForest-PPI can boost the prediction accuracy, complement experiments and improve drug discovery. The datasets and code of GcForest-PPI could be downloaded at https://github.com/QUST-AIBBDRC/GcForest-PPI/. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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