Rxivist logo

Animal behavior is shaped both by evolution and by individual experience. In many species parallel brain pathways are thought to encode innate and learnt behavior drives and as a result may link the same sensory cue to different actions if innate and learnt drives are in opposition. How these opposing drives are integrated into a single coherent action is not well understood. In insects, the Mushroom Body Output Neurons (MBONs) and the Lateral Horn Neurons (LHNs) are thought to provide the learnt and innate drives, respectively. However their patterns of convergence and the mechanisms by which their outputs are used to select actions are not well understood. We used electron microscopy reconstruction to comprehensively map the downstream targets of all MBONs in Drosophila larva and characterise their patterns of convergence with LHNs. We discovered convergence neurons that receive direct input from MBONs and LHNs and compare opposite behaviour drives. Functional imaging and optogenetic manipulation suggest these convergence neurons compute the overall predicted value of approaching or avoiding an odor and mediate action selection. Our study describes the circuit mechanisms allowing integration of opposing drives from parallel olfactory pathways. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

Download data

  • Downloaded 851 times
  • Download rankings, all-time:
    • Site-wide: 17,341 out of 101,349
    • In neuroscience: 2,805 out of 18,061
  • Year to date:
    • Site-wide: 3,342 out of 101,349
  • Since beginning of last month:
    • Site-wide: 11,020 out of 101,349

Altmetric data

Downloads over time

Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide


Sign up for the Rxivist weekly newsletter! (Click here for more details.)


  • 20 Oct 2020: Support for sorting preprints using Twitter activity has been removed, at least temporarily, until a new source of social media activity data becomes available.
  • 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
  • 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
  • 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
  • 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
  • 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
  • 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
  • 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
  • 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!