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A Structure-Based Mechanism for DNA Entry into the Cohesin Ring

By Torahiko L. Higashi, Patrik Eickhoff, Joana S. Simoes, Julia Locke, Andrea Nans, Helen R. Flynn, Ambrosius P. Snijders, George Papageorgiou, Nicola O'Reilly, Zhuo A Chen, Francis J. O’Reilly, Juri Rappsilber, Alessandro Costa, Frank Uhlmann

Posted 21 Apr 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.04.21.052944 (published DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2020.07.013)

Despite key roles in sister chromatid cohesion and chromosome organization, the mechanism by which cohesin rings are loaded onto DNA is still unknown. Here, we combine biophysical approaches and cryo-EM to visualize a cohesin loading intermediate in which DNA is locked between two gates that lead into the cohesin ring. Building on this structural framework, we design biochemical experiments to establish the order of events during cohesin loading. In an initial step, DNA traverses an N-terminal kleisin gate that is first opened upon ATP binding and then closed as the cohesin loader locks the DNA against a shut ATPase gate. ATP hydrolysis leads to ATPase gate opening to complete DNA entry. Whether DNA loading is successful, or rather results in loop extrusion, might be dictated by a conserved kleisin N-terminal tail that guides the DNA through the kleisin gate. Our results establish the molecular basis for cohesin loading onto DNA. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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