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Hybrid origin of Populus tomentosa Carr. identified through genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis

By Xinmin An, Kai Gao, Zhong Chen, Juan Li, Xiong Yang, Xiaoyu Yang, Jing Zhou, Ting Guo, Tianyun Zhao, Sai Huang, Deyu Miao, Wasif Ullah Khan, Pian Rao, Meixia Ye, Bingqi Lei, Weihua Liao, Jia Wang, Lexiang Ji, Ying Li, Bing Guo, Nada Siddig Mustafa, Shanwen Li, Quanzheng Yun, Stephen R. Keller, Jianfeng Mao, Rengang Zhang, Steven H. Strauss

Posted 09 Apr 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.04.07.030692

Populus tomentosa is widely distributed and cultivated in the Northern and Central China, where it is of great economic and ecological importance. However, the origin of P. tomentosa remains controversial. Here, we used a PacBio+Hi-C+Illumina strategy to sequence and assemble its 740.2 Mb (2n) genome. The assembly accounts for greater than 92.1% of the 800-megabase genome, comprises 38 chromosomes, and contains 59,124 annotated protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses elucidated dynamic genome evolution events among its closely related white poplars, and revealed that tomentosa is comprised of two subgenomes, which we deomonstrate is likely to have resulted from hybridization between Populus adenopoda as the female, and Populus alba var. pyramidalis as the male, around 3.93 Mya. We also detected structural variations and allele-indels across genome. Our study presents a high quality and well assembled genome, unveils the origin of the widely distributed and planted P. tomentosa, and provides a powerful resource for comparative plant biology, breeding, and biotechnology. ### Competing Interest Statement

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