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Inflammation promotes adipocyte lipolysis via IRE1 kinase

By Kevin P. Foley, Yong Chen, Nicole G Barra, Mark Heal, Kieran Kwok, Akhilesh K Tamrakar, Wendy Chi, Brittany M. Duggan, Brandyn D Henriksbo, Yong Liu, Jonathan Schertzer

Posted 08 Apr 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.04.07.030148

Obesity associates with inflammation, insulin resistance and higher blood lipids. It is unclear if immune responses facilitate lipolysis separate from hormone or adrenergic signals. We found that an ancient component of ER stress, inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1), discriminates inflammation-induced adipocyte lipolysis versus lipolysis regulated by adrenergic or hormonal stimuli. Inhibiting IRE1 kinase activity was sufficient to block adipocyte-autonomous lipolysis from multiple inflammatory ligands, including bacterial components, certain cytokines, and thapsigargin-induced ER stress. Adipocyte-specific deletion of IRE1 in mice prevented inflammatory ligand-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue. IRE1 kinase activity was dispensable for isoproterenol and cAMP-induced lipolysis in adipocytes and mouse adipose tissue. IRE1 RNase activity was not associated with inflammation-induced adipocyte lipolysis. We found no role for canonical unfolded protein responses (UPR) or ABL kinases in linking ER stress to lipolysis. Lipolysis was unchanged in adipose tissue from GRP78/BiP+/- compared to littermate mice. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib, which reduce ER stress and IRE1 RNase activity, did not alter lipolysis from inflammatory stimuli. Inhibiting IRE1 kinase activity blocked adipocyte NF-kB activation and Interleukin-6 (Il6) production due to inflammatory ligands. Inflammation-induced lipolysis mediated by IRE1 occurred independently from changes in insulin signalling in adipocytes. Therefore, inflammation can promote IRE1-mediated lipolysis independent of adipocyte insulin resistance. Our results show that IRE1 propagates an inflammation-specific lipolytic program independent from hormonal or adrenergic regulation, including insulin resistance. Targeting IRE1 kinase activity may benefit metabolic syndrome and inflammatory lipid disorders.

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