Coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase and spike proteins co-evolve for functional balance and optimal virion avidity
Arthur C.S. van den Burg,
Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld,
Geert-Jan P.H. Boons,
Eric G. Huizinga,
Hilde M. van der Schaar,
Raoul J. de Groot
Posted 05 Apr 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.04.03.003699
Posted 05 Apr 2020
Human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 are respiratory pathogen of zoonotic origin that have gained worldwide distribution. OC43 apparently emerged from a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) spill-over. All three viruses attach to 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans via spike protein S with hemagglutinin-esterase HE acting as a receptor-destroying enzyme. In BCoV, an HE lectin domain promotes esterase activity towards clustered substrates. OC43 and HKU1, however, lost HE lectin function as an adaptation to humans. Replaying OC43 evolution, we knocked-out BCoV HE lectin function and performed forced evolution-population dynamics analysis. Loss of HE receptor-binding selected for second-site mutations in S, decreasing S binding affinity by orders of magnitude. Irreversible HE mutations selected for cooperativity in virus swarms with low-affinity S minority variants sustaining propagation of high-affinity majority phenotypes. Salvageable HE mutations induced successive second-site substitutions in both S and HE. Apparently, S and HE are functionally interdependent and co-evolve to optimize the balance between attachment and release. This mechanism of glycan-based receptor usage, entailing a concerted, fine-tuned activity of two envelope protein species, is unique among CoVs, but reminiscent of that of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Apparently, general principles fundamental to virion-sialoglycan interactions prompted convergent evolution of two important groups of human and animal pathogens.
- Downloaded 1,738 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 4,896 out of 94,912
- In microbiology: 325 out of 8,320
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 852 out of 94,912
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 1,189 out of 94,912
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!