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The activity and connectivity of inhibitory cells has a profound impact on the operation of neuronal networks. While the average connectivity of many inhibitory cell types has been characterized, we still lack an understanding of how individual interneurons distribute their synapses onto their targets and how heterogeneous the inhibition is onto different individual excitatory neurons. Here, we use large-scale volumetric electron microscopy (EM) and functional imaging to address this question for chandelier cells in layer 2/3 of mouse visual cortex. Using dense morphological reconstructions from EM, we mapped the complete chandelier input onto 153 pyramidal neurons. We find that the number of input synapses is highly variable across the population, but the variability is correlated with structural features of the target neuron: soma depth, soma size, and the number of perisomatic synapses received. Functionally, we found that chandelier cell activity in vivo was highly correlated and tracks pupil diameter, a proxy for arousal state. We propose that chandelier cells provide a global signal whose strength is individually adjusted for each target neuron. This approach, combining comprehensive structural analysis with functional recordings of identified cell types, will be a powerful tool to uncover the wiring rules across the diversity of cortical cell types.

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