Thioproline formation as a driver of formaldehyde toxicity in Escherichia coli
Jenelle A. Patterson,
Jacob S. Folz,
Mark A. Wilson,
Steven D. Bruner,
Andrew D Hanson
Posted 20 Mar 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.03.19.981027 (published DOI: 10.1042/BCJ20200198)
Posted 20 Mar 2020
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a reactive carbonyl compound that formylates and cross-links proteins, DNA, and small molecules. It is of specific concern as a toxic intermediate in the design of engineered pathways involving methanol oxidation or formate reduction. The high interest in engineering these pathways is not, however, matched by engineering-relevant information on precisely why HCHO is toxic or on what damage-control mechanisms cells deploy to manage HCHO toxicity. The only well-defined mechanism for managing HCHO toxicity is formaldehyde dehydrogenase-mediated oxidation to formate, which is counterproductive if HCHO is a desired pathway intermediate. We therefore sought alternative HCHO damage-control mechanisms via comparative genomic analysis. This analysis associated homologs of the Escherichia coli pepP gene with HCHO-related one-carbon metabolism. Furthermore, deleting pepP increased the sensitivity of E. coli to supplied HCHO but not other carbonyl compounds. PepP is a proline aminopeptidase that cleaves peptides of the general formula X-Pro-Y, yielding X + Pro-Y. HCHO is known to react spontaneously with cysteine to form the close proline analog thioproline (thiazolidine-4-carboxylate), which is incorporated into proteins and hence into proteolytic peptides. We therefore hypothesized that thioproline-containing peptides are toxic and that PepP cleaves these aberrant peptides. Supporting this hypothesis, PepP cleaved the model peptide Ala-thioproline-Ala as efficiently as Ala-Pro-Ala in vitro and in vivo , and deleting pepP increased sensitivity to supplied thioproline. Our data thus (i) provide biochemical genetic evidence that thioproline formation contributes substantially to HCHO toxicity and (ii) make PepP a candidate damage-control enzyme for engineered pathways having HCHO as an intermediate.
- Downloaded 136 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 83,472 out of 94,912
- In biochemistry: 2,722 out of 3,211
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 35,140 out of 94,912
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 34,487 out of 94,912
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!