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Genome-wide divergence among invasive populations of Aedes aegypti in California

By Yoosook Lee, Hanno Schmidt, Travis C Collier, William R Conner, Mark J Hanemaaijer, Montgomery Slatkin, John M Marshall, Joanna Chiu, Chelsea Smartt, Gregory Charles Lanzaro, F. Steve Mulligan, Anthony J Cornel

Posted 20 Jul 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/166629 (published DOI: 10.1186/s12864-019-5586-4)

In the summer of 2013, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus was first detected in three cities in central California (Clovis, Madera and Menlo Park). It has now been detected in multiple locations in central and southern CA as far south as San Diego and Imperial Counties. Here we analyzed 26 Ae. aegypti genomes from multiple locations throughout California to determine if these populations originated from a single or multiple introductions. We also compared Ae. aegypti populations in Clovis at two time points, 2013 and 2016, to describe changes at the genome level that might suggest adaptation to its new environment. We identified 3 distinct genetic clusters loosely corresponding to different regions within California. Populations at all five southern California sites are grouped into a single genetic cluster. However, all three clusters occur in parapatry in the Central Valley. We also found two major mitochondrial lineages with an estimated divergence time of 55,700 - 557,000 years ago. Genome-wide comparisons indicate extensive differentiation between genetic clusters. A potential selective sweep within the Clovis population was also detected. We believe these observations support recent multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti into California.

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