Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a more continuous alternative to haemodialysis, for patients with chronic kidney disease, with considerable initial benefits for survival, patient independence and healthcare costs. However, longterm PD is associated with significant pathology, negating the positive effects over haemodialysis. Importantly, peritonitis and activation of macrophages is closely associated with disease progression and treatment failure. However, recent advances in macrophage biology suggest opposite functions for macrophages of different cellular origins. While monocyte-derived macrophages promote disease progression in some models of fibrosis, tissue resident macrophages have rather been associated with protective roles. Thus, we aimed to identify the relative contribution of tissue resident macrophages to PD induced inflammation in mice. Unexpectedly, we found an incremental loss of homeostatic characteristics, anti-inflammatory and efferocytic functionality in peritoneal resident macrophages, accompanied by enhanced inflammatory responses to external stimuli. Moreover, presence of glucose degradation products within the dialysis fluid led to markedly enhanced inflammation and almost complete disappearance of tissue resident cells. Thus, alterations in tissue resident macrophages may render longterm PD patients sensitive to developing peritonitis and consequently fibrosis/sclerosis.
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