Metaproteomic responses of in vitro gut microbiomes to resistant starches: the role of resistant starch type and inter-individual variations
Resistant starches (RS) are dietary compounds processed by the gut microbiota into metabolites, such as butyrate, that are beneficial to the host. The production of butyrate by the microbiome appears to be affected by the plant source and type of RS as well as the individual's microbiota. In this study, we used in vitro culture and metaproteomic methods to explore the consistency and variations in individual microbiome's functional responses to three types of RS - RS2(Hi Maize 260), RS3(Novelose 330) and RS4(Fibersym RW). Results showed that RS2 and RS3 significantly altered the levels of protein expression in the individual gut microbiomes, while RS4 did not result in significant protein changes. Significantly elevated protein groups were enriched in carbohydrate metabolism and transport functions of families Eubacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. In addition, Bifidobacteriaceae was significantly increased in response to RS3. We also observed taxon-specific enrichments of starch metabolism and pentose phosphate pathways corresponding to this family. Functions related to starch utilization, ABC transporters and pyruvate metabolism pathways were consistently increased in the individual microbiomes in response to RS2 and RS3; in contrast, the downstream butyrate producing pathway response varied. Our study confirm that different types of RS have markedly variable functional effects on the human gut microbiome, and also found considerable inter-individual differences in microbiome pathway responses.
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