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Polyploidization enhancing genetic recombination of the ancestral diploid genome in the evolution of hexaploid wheat

By Hongshen Wan, Jun Li, Shengwei Ma, Qin Wang, Xinguo Zhu, Zehou Liu, Fan Yang, Manyu Yang, Jianmin Zheng, Shizhao Li, Jiangtao Luo, Wuyun Yang

Posted 23 Feb 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.21.958991

Allopolyploidy increases its evolutionary potential by fixing heterosis and the advantage of gene redundancy. Allelic combinations generated from genetic recombination potentially provide many variations to the selection pools for evolution. May there be any relationship between allopolyploidization and genetic recombination? To study the impact of polyploidy on genetic recombination, we selected wheat as a model and simulated its evolution pathway of allopolyploidy by developing synthetic hexaploid wheat. The change of homologous chromosome recombination were investigated on their diploid DD and tetraploid AABB genomes after their allohexaploidization, respectively. The genetic recombination of the ancestral diploid genome of Aegilops tauschii was enhanced significantly more than 2 folds after their hexaploidization. Hexaploidization enhancing genetic recombination of the ancestral diploid D genome was firstly reported to be a new way to increase evolutionary potential of wheat, which is beneficial for wheat to conquer their narrow origination of D genome, quickly spread and make it a major crop of the world. Finally, re-synthetizing hexaploid wheat using diverse Ae. tauschii species with tetraploid wheat can be considered as a pleiotropic strategy to speed adaptive evolution of bread wheat in breeding processes by increasing both gene allele types and genetic recombination variations.

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