SIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis synergy within the granuloma accelerates the reactivation pattern of latent tuberculosis
Collin R Diedrich,
Tonilynn M Baranowski,
Alexander G. White,
H. Jacob Borish,
Sarah M Fortune,
JoAnne L Flynn,
Philana Ling Lin
Posted 21 Feb 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.21.959353 (published DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008413)
Posted 21 Feb 2020
Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the most common risk factor for severe forms of tuberculosis (TB), regardless of CD4 T cell count. Using a well-characterized cynomolgus macaque model of human TB, we compared radiographic, immunologic and microbiologic characteristics of early (subclinical) reactivation of latent M. tuberculosis ( Mtb ) infection among animals subsequently infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or who underwent anti-CD4 depletion by a depletion antibody. CD4 depleted animals had significantly fewer CD4 T cells within granulomas compared to Mtb/SIV co-infected and Mtb-only control animals. After 2 months of treatment, subclinical reactivation occurred at similar rates among CD4 depleted (5 of 7 animals) and SIV infected animals (4 of 8 animals). However, SIV-induced reactivation was associated with more dissemination of lung granulomas that were permissive to Mtb growth resulting in greater bacterial burden within granulomas compared to CD4 depleted reactivators. Granulomas from Mtb/SIV animals displayed a more robust T cell activation profile (IFN-α, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17, IL-2, IL-10, IL-4 and granzyme B) compared to Mtb/αCD4 animals and controls though these effectors did not protect against reactivation or dissemination, but instead may be related to increased viral and/or Mtb antigens. SIV replication within the granuloma was associated with reactivation, greater overall Mtb growth and Mtb killing resulting in greater overall Mtb burden. These data support that SIV disrupts protective immune responses against latent Mtb infection beyond the loss of CD4 T cells, and that synergy between SIV and Mtb occurs within granulomas.
- Downloaded 283 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 120,448
- In immunology: 3,607
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 149,481
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 153,468
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!