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A simulation study investigating power estimates in Phenome-Wide Association Studies

By Anurag Verma, Yuki Bradford, Scott Dudek, Anastasia M Lucas, Shefali S. Verma, Sarah A. Pendergrass, Marylyn D. Ritchie

Posted 12 Mar 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/115550 (published DOI: 10.1186/s12859-018-2135-0)

Background: Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) are a high-throughput approach to evaluate comprehensive associations between genetic variants and a wide range of phenotypic measures. PheWAS has varying sample sizes for quantitative traits, and variable numbers of cases and controls for binary traits across the many phenotypes of interest, which can affect the statistical power to detect associations. The motivation of this study is to investigate the various parameters which affect the estimation of statistical power in PheWAS, including sample size, case-control ratio, minor allele frequency, and disease penetrance. Results: We performed a PheWAS simulation study, where we investigated variations in statistical power based on different parameters, such as overall sample size, number of cases, case-control ratio, minor allele frequency, and disease penetrance. The simulation was performed on both binary and quantitative phenotypic measures. Our simulation on binary traits suggests that the number of cases has more impact than the case to control ratio; also, we found that a sample size of 200 cases or more maintains the statistical power to identify associations for common variants. For quantitative traits, a sample size of 1000 or more individuals performed best in the power calculations. We focused on common genetic variants (MAF>0.01) in this study; however, in future studies, we will be extending this effort to perform similar simulations on rare variants. Conclusions: This study provides a series of PheWAS simulation analyses that can be used to estimate statistical power for some potential scenarios. These results can be used to provide guidelines for appropriate study design for future PheWAS analyses.

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