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Genomic analyses provide insights into peach local adaptation and responses to climate change

By Yong Li, Ke Cao, Nan Li, Gengrui Zhu, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, Xiuli Zeng, Jian Guo, Shanshan Zhang, Qi Wang, Tiyu Ding, Jiao Wang, Liping Guan, Junxiu Wang, Kuozhan Liu, Wenwu Guo, Pere ArĂºs, Sanwen Huang, Zhangjun Fei, Lirong Wang

Posted 15 Jan 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.15.907709

The environment has constantly shaped plant genomes, but the genetic bases underlying how plants adapt to environmental influences remain largely unknown. We constructed a high-density genomic variation map by re-sequencing genomes of 263 geographically representative peach landraces and wild relatives. A combination of whole-genome selection scans and genome-wide environmental association studies (GWEAS) was performed to reveal the genomic bases of peach local adaptation to diverse climates comprehensively. A total of 2,092 selective sweeps that underlie local adaptation to both mild and extreme climates were identified, including 339 sweeps conferring genomic pattern of adaptation to high altitudes. Using GWEAS, a total of 3,496 genomic loci strongly associated with 51 specific environmental variables were detected. The molecular mechanism underlying adaptive evolution of high drought, strong UV-B, cold hardiness, sugar content, flesh color, and bloom date were revealed. Finally, based on 30 years of observation, a candidate gene associated with bloom date advance, representing peach responses to global warming, was identified. Collectively, our study provides insights into molecular bases of how environments have shaped peach genomes by natural selection and adds valuable genome resources and candidate genes for future studies on evolutionary genetics, adaptation to climate changes, and future breeding.

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