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Insomnia is a common disorder linked with adverse long-term medical and psychiatric outcomes, but underlying pathophysiological processes and causal relationships with disease are poorly understood. Here we identify 57 loci for self-reported insomnia symptoms in the UK Biobank (n=453,379) and confirm their impact on self-reported insomnia symptoms in the HUNT study (n=14,923 cases, 47,610 controls), physician diagnosed insomnia in Partners Biobank (n=2,217 cases, 14,240 controls), and accelerometer-derived measures of sleep efficiency and sleep duration in the UK Biobank (n=83,726). Our results suggest enrichment of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, phototransduction and muscle development pathways and of genes expressed in multiple brain regions, skeletal muscle and adrenal gland. Evidence of shared genetic factors is found between frequent insomnia symptoms and restless legs syndrome, aging, cardio-metabolic, behavioral, psychiatric and reproductive traits. Evidence is found for a possible causal link between insomnia symptoms and coronary heart disease, depressive symptoms and subjective well-being.

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