DNA methylation oscillation defines classes of enhancers
Rifat A. Hamoudi,
Arcadio Rubio Garcia,
Willem H. Ouwehand,
Dirk S. Paul,
Joost H. A. Martens,
Hendrik G. Stunnenberg,
Posted 08 Feb 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/262212
Posted 08 Feb 2018
Understanding the regulatory landscape of human cells requires the integration of genomic and epigenomic maps, capturing combinatorial levels of cell type-specific and invariant activity states. Here, we segmented whole-genome bisulfite sequencing-derived methylomes into consecutive blocks of co-methylation (COMETs) to obtain spatial variation patterns of DNA methylation (DNAm oscillations) integrated with histone modifications and promoter-enhancer interactions derived from promoter capture Hi-C (PCHi-C) sequencing of the same purified blood cells. Mapping DNAm oscillations onto regulatory genome annotation revealed that enhancers are enriched for DNAm hyper-oscillations (>30-fold), where multiple machine learning models support DNAm as predictive of enhancer location. Based on this analysis, we report overall predictive power of 99% for DNAm oscillations, 77.3% for DNaseI, 41% for CGIs, 20% for UMRs and 0% for LMRs, demonstrating the power of DNAm oscillations over other methods for enhancer prediction. Methylomes of activated and non-activated CD4+ T cells indicate that DNAm oscillations exist in both states irrespective of activation; hence they can be used to determine the location of latent enhancers. Our approach advances the identification of tissue-specific regulatory elements and is a first demonstration of defining enhancer classes based on DNA methylation.
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