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Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common human birth defects caused by trisomy 21 (T21), leading to a variety of cognitive impairments. The cellular composition of human brain has been explored using single cell RNA sequencing in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the cellular heterogeneity of human brain with chromosome aneuploidy is largely unknown. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of 36046 cells in cerebral cortex of T21 human fetus, covering frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe. Intriguingly, we detected several genes positively associated with neurons maturation was dysregulated in T21 frontal cortex (HIC2, POU2F2, ZGLP1 and FOXK1). To share, explore and utilized the data resources of T21 cerebral cortex, we developed a comprehensive platform named T21atlas, composing of two functional modules (T21cluster and T21talk). Overall, our study provides, as far as we know, the first single cell atlas for T21 cerebral cortex, which could promote our understanding of the molecular mechanism of DS at an unprecedented resolution and could potentially facilitate the development of novel clinical therapeutics against T21.

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