Endogenization and excision of human herpesvirus 6 in human genomes
Anselmo Jiro Kamada,
Nicholas F Parrish,
Posted 26 Dec 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2019.12.19.882522 (published DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008915)
Posted 26 Dec 2019
The genome of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is integrated within the nuclear genome of about 1% of humans, but how this came about is not clear. HHV-6 integrates into telomeres, and this has recently been associated with polymorphisms affecting MOV10L1. MOV10L1 is located on the subtelomere of chromosome 22q (chr22q) and is required to make PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). piRNAs block integration of transposons in the germline, so piRNA-mediated repression of HHV-6 integration has been suspected. Whether integrated HHV-6 can reactive into an infectious virus is also uncertain. In vitro, recombination of the viral genome along its terminal direct repeats (DRs) leads to excision from the telomere and viral reactivation, but the expected single DR scar has not been described in vivo. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from 13,040 subjects, including 7,485 from Japan. We found an association between integrated HHV-6 and polymorphisms on chr22q in Japanese subjects. However, association with the reported MOV10L1 polymorphism was driven by physical linkage to a single ancient endogenous HHV-6A variant integrated into the telomere of chr22q in East Asians. We resolved the junction of the human chromosome with this viral genome using long read sequencing. Unexpectedly, an HHV-6B variant has also endogenized in chr22q; two endogenous HHV-6 variants at this locus thus account for 72% of all integrated HHV-6 in Japan. We also report human genomes carrying only one portion of the HHV-6B genome, a single DR, supporting in vivo excision and viral reactivation. Using WGS data from North American families, we show that the incidence of HHV-6 integration into the germline is lower than its prevalence, and that integrated HHV-6 is not associated with the reported variant in MOV10L1. Together these results explain the recently reported association between integrated HHV-6 and MOV10L1/piRNAs, suggest exaptation of HHV-6 in its coevolution with human chr22q, and clarify the evolution and risk of reactivation of the only intact non-retroviral genome known to be present in human germlines.
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