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Genetic variation of Aedes aegypti populations from Ecuador

By Varsovia Cevallos, Denisse Benítez, Josefina Coloma, Andres Carrazco-Montalvo, Chunling Wang, Susan Holecheck, Cristina Quiroga, Gabriela Castillo, Britney Tillis, Patricio Ponce

Posted 18 Dec 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2019.12.17.875591

This is the first genetic analysis in Ecuador of Aedes aegypti using fragments of mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). A total of 154 mosquitoes from 23 localities were collected in the Pacific coastal lowlands, Amazon basin lowlands, and the Gal&aacutepagos Islands from 2012 to 2019. The analysis of fragments of the genes COI (672 bp) and ND4 (262 bp) and concatenated analysis of both COI and ND4 showed two haplotypes (H1, H2) present in Ecuador mainland and the Gal&aacutepagos Islands. The phylogenetic analysis identified two well-supported clades. Combined analysis of both genes from ten localities also resulted in two haplotypes. Nucleotide diversity, neutrality tests (Tajima s test D, Fu and Li s F*and D*) and AMOVA analysis of the entire data set suggest balancing selection for both genes. The results indicate genetic variation without geographical restriction. COI-H1 grouped with sequences from the Americas, West and Central Africa, East Africa, Asia, and Australia. ND4-H1 grouped with similar sequences from the Americas, Asia and West Africa. COI-H2 grouped with sequences from Asia and the Americas. ND4-H2 grouped with sequences from the Americas. We report overlapping peaks in four sequences that suggest heteroplasmy in the individuals. The origin of the populations of Aedes aegypti in Ecuador show African genetic origin and are widely present in several countries in the Americas. One of the genetic variants is more common in all the localities and the two haplotypes are distributed indistinctly in the three geographical sampled areas in Ecuador.

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