Mathematical models of biological reactions at the system-level lead to a set of ordinary differential equations with many unknown parameters that need to be inferred using relatively few experimental measurements. Having a reliable and robust algorithm for parameter inference and prediction of the hidden dynamics has been one of the core subjects in systems biology, and is the focus of this study. We have developed a new systems-biology-informed deep learning algorithm that incorporates the system of ordinary differential equations into the neural networks. Enforcing these equations effectively adds constraints to the optimization procedure that manifests itself as an imposed structure on the observational data. Using few scattered and noisy measurements, we are able to infer the dynamics of unobserved species, external forcing, and the unknown model parameters. We have successfully tested the algorithm for three different benchmark problems. Author summary The dynamics of systems biological processes are usually modeled using ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which introduce various unknown parameters that need to be estimated efficiently from noisy measurements of concentration for a few species only. In this work, we present a new “systems-informed neural network” to infer the dynamics of experimentally unobserved species as well as the unknown parameters in the system of equations. By incorporating the system of ODEs into the neural networks, we effectively add constraints to the optimization algorithm, which makes the method robust to noisy and sparse measurements. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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