Global analysis of adenylate-forming enzymes reveals β-lactone biosynthesis pathway in pathogenic Nocardia
Serina L. Robinson,
Barbara R. Terlouw,
Megan D. Smith,
Sacha J. Pidot,
Timothy P. Stinear,
Marnix H Medema,
Lawrence P. Wackett
Posted 29 Nov 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/856955 (published DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.013528)
Posted 29 Nov 2019
Enzymes that cleave ATP to activate carboxylic acids play essential roles in primary and secondary metabolism in all domains of life. Class I adenylate-forming enzymes share a conserved structural fold but act on a wide range of substrates to catalyze reactions involved in bioluminescence, nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, fatty acid activation, and β-lactone formation. Despite their metabolic importance, the substrates and catalytic functions of the vast majority of adenylate-forming enzymes are unknown without tools available to accurately predict them. Given the crucial roles of adenylate-forming enzymes in biosynthesis, this also severely limits our ability to predict natural product structures from biosynthetic gene clusters. Here we used machine learning to predict adenylate-forming enzyme function and substrate specificity from protein sequence. We built a web-based predictive tool and used it to comprehensively map the biochemical diversity of adenylate-forming enzymes across >50,000 candidate biosynthetic gene clusters in bacterial, fungal, and plant genomes. Ancestral enzyme reconstruction and sequence similarity networking revealed a ‘hub’ topology suggesting radial divergence of the adenylate-forming superfamily from a core enzyme scaffold most related to contemporary aryl-CoA ligases. Our classifier also predicted β-lactone synthetases in novel biosynthetic gene clusters conserved across >90 different strains of Nocardia . To test our computational predictions, we purified a candidate β-lactone synthetase from Nocardia brasiliensis and reconstituted the biosynthetic pathway in vitro to link the gene cluster to the β-lactone natural product, nocardiolactone. We anticipate our machine learning approach will aid in functional classification of enzymes and advance natural product discovery.
- Downloaded 656 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 48,328
- In biochemistry: 1,233
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 73,333
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 90,148
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!