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Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is frequent in cancer patients and associated with increased risk of therapy related myeloid neoplasms (tMN). To define the relationship between CH, oncologic therapy, and tMN progression, we studied 24,439 cancer patients. We show that previously treated patients have increased rates of CH, with enrichment of mutations in DNA Damage Response (DDR) genes (TP53, PPM1D, CHEK2). Exposure to radiation, platinum and topoisomerase II inhibitors have the strongest association with CH with evidence of dose dependence and gene treatment interactions. We validate these associations in serial sampling from 525 patients and show that exposure to cytotoxic and radiation therapy imparts a selective advantage specifically in hematopoietic cells with DDR mutations. In patients who progressed to tMN, the clone at CH demarcated the dominant clone at tMN diagnosis. CH mutational features predict risk of therapy related myeloid neoplasm in solid tumor patients with clinical implications for early detection and treatment decisions.

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