A genetic map of the response to DNA damage in human cells
Matthew J. Schellenberg,
Silvia Emma Rossi,
Anne Margriet Heijink,
Alexanda K. Ling,
Michael W. Ferguson,
Grant W. Brown,
R. Scott Williams,
Posted 18 Nov 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/845446 (published DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.040)
Posted 18 Nov 2019
The response to DNA damage is critical for cellular homeostasis, tumor suppression, immunity and gametogenesis. In order to provide an unbiased and global view of the DNA damage response in human cells, we undertook 28 CRISPR/Cas9 screens against 25 genotoxic agents in the retinal pigment epithelium-1 (RPE1) cell line. These screens identified 840 genes whose loss causes either sensitivity or resistance to DNA damaging agents. Mining this dataset, we uncovered that ERCC6L2, which is mutated in a bone-marrow failure syndrome, codes for a canonical non-homologous end-joining pathway factor; that the RNA polymerase II component ELOF1 modulates the response to transcription-blocking agents and that the cytotoxicity of the G-quadruplex ligand pyridostatin involves trapping topoisomerase II on DNA. This map of the DNA damage response provides a rich resource to study this fundamental cellular system and has implications for the development and use of genotoxic agents in cancer therapy.
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