Quantitative phase imaging and digital holographic microscopy have shown great promise for visualizing the motion, structure and physiology of microorganisms and mammalian cells in three dimensions. However, these imaging techniques currently lack molecular contrast agents analogous to the fluorescent dyes and proteins that have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy. Here we introduce the first genetically encodable phase contrast agents based on gas vesicles, a unique class of air-filled protein nanostructures derived from buoyant microbes. The relatively low index of refraction of the air-filled core of gas vesicles results in optical phase advancement relative to aqueous media, making them a positive phase contrast agent easily distinguished from organelles, dyes, or microminerals. We demonstrate this capability by identifying and tracking the motion of gas vesicles and gas vesicle-expressing bacteria using digital holographic microscopy, and by imaging the uptake of engineered gas vesicles by mammalian cells. These results give phase imaging a biomolecular contrast agent, greatly expanding the capabilities of this powerful technology for three-dimensional biological imaging.
- Downloaded 354 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 45,544 out of 88,877
- In bioengineering: 885 out of 1,980
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 27,265 out of 88,877
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 42,699 out of 88,877
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!