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Human natural killer cell deficiency (NKD) arises from inborn errors of immunity that lead to impaired NK cell development, function or both. Through the understanding of the biological perturbations in individuals with NKD, requirements for the generation of terminally mature functional innate effector cells can be elucidated. Here we report a novel cause of NKD resulting from compound heterozygous mutations in MCM10 that impaired NK cell maturation in a child with fatal susceptibility to CMV. MCM10 has not been previously associated with monogenic disease and plays a critical role in the activation and function of the eukaryotic DNA replisome. By modeling MCM10 deficiency in human NK cell lines and primary NK cell precursors, we demonstrate that MCM10 is required for NK cell terminal maturation and acquisition of immunological system function.

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