In planta bacterial multi-omics analysis illuminates regulatory principles underlying plant-pathogen interactions
Understanding how gene expression is regulated in plant pathogens is crucial for pest control and thus global food security. An integrated understanding of bacterial gene regulation in the host is dependent on multi-omic datasets, but these are largely lacking. Here, we simultaneously characterized the transcriptome and proteome of a foliar bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae , in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified a number of bacterial processes influenced by plant immunity at the mRNA and the protein level. We found instances of both concordant and discordant regulation of bacterial mRNAs and proteins. Notably, the tip component of bacterial type III secretion system was selectively suppressed by the plant salicylic acid pathway at the protein level, suggesting protein-level targeting of the bacterial virulence system by plant immunity. Furthermore, gene co-expression analysis illuminated previously unknown gene regulatory modules underlying bacterial virulence and their regulatory hierarchy. Collectively, the integrated in planta bacterial omics approach provides molecular insights into multiple layers of bacterial gene regulation that contribute to bacterial growth in planta and elucidate the role of plant immunity in controlling pathogens.
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