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Associations between outdoor temperature and bright sunlight with metabolites in two population-based European cohorts

By Boukje C Eveleens Maarse, Nellie Y. Loh, Fredrik Karpe, Frits R Rosendaal, Diana van Heemst, Dennis O. Mook-Kanamori, Ko Willems van Dijk, Patrick CN Rensen, Sander Kooijman, Constantinos Christodoulides, Raymond Noordam

Posted 30 Oct 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/818740 (published DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.030)

Context: Outdoor temperature and bright sunlight may directly and/or indirectly modulate systemic metabolism. Objective: We assessed the associations between outdoor temperature and bright sunlight duration with metabolomics. Design: meta-analysis of two cross-sectional studies. Setting: Two population-based European cohort studies. Patients or other participants: Non-diabetic individuals from the Oxford BioBank (OBB; N=6,368; mean age 47.0 years, males 44%) and the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO; N=5,916; mean age 55.6 years, males 43%) studies. Intervention(s): Data on mean outdoor bright sunlight and temperature collected from local weather stations in the week prior to blood sampling. Main Outcome Measure(s): Serum levels of 148 metabolites measured using NMR spectroscopy, including 14 lipoprotein subclasses. Statistical analyses: Multivariable linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, season and either outdoor temperature or bright sunlight. Summary statistics from the OBB and NEO cohorts were combined using fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: A higher mean outdoor temperature was associated with increased concentrations of lipoprotein (sub)particles and certain amino acids such as phenylalanine and leucine. In contrast, longer mean hours of bright sunlight were specifically associated with lower concentrations of very low density lipoprotein (sub)particles. The direction of effects was consistent between the OBB and NEO, although effect sizes were generally larger in the OBB. Conclusions: Increased bright sunlight duration is associated with an improved metabolic profile whilst higher outdoor temperature may adversely impact cardiometabolic health.

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