Rxivist logo

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are generic markers of regulatory DNA and harbor disease- and phenotypic trait-associated genetic variation. We established high-precision maps of DNase I hypersensitive sites from 733 human biosamples encompassing 439 cell and tissue types and states, and integrated these to precisely delineate and numerically index ~3.6 million DHSs encoded within the human genome, providing a common coordinate system for regulatory DNA. Here we show that the expansive scale of cell and tissue states sampled exposes an unprecedented degree of stereotyped actuation of large sets of elements, signaling the operation of distinct genome-scale regulatory programs. We show further that the complex actuation patterns of individual elements can be captured comprehensively by a simple regulatory vocabulary reflecting their dominant cellular manifestation. This vocabulary, in turn, enables comprehensive and quantitative regulatory annotation of both protein-coding genes and the vast array of well-defined but poorly-characterized non-coding RNA genes. Finally, we show that the combination of high-precision DHSs and regulatory vocabularies markedly concentrate disease- and trait-associated non-coding genetic signals both along the genome and across cellular compartments. Taken together, our results provide a common and extensible coordinate system and vocabulary for human regulatory DNA, and a new global perspective on the architecture of human gene regulation.

Download data

  • Downloaded 2,444 times
  • Download rankings, all-time:
    • Site-wide: 2,875 out of 100,488
    • In genomics: 520 out of 6,229
  • Year to date:
    • Site-wide: 2,662 out of 100,488
  • Since beginning of last month:
    • Site-wide: None out of 100,488

Altmetric data

Downloads over time

Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide


Sign up for the Rxivist weekly newsletter! (Click here for more details.)


  • 20 Oct 2020: Support for sorting preprints using Twitter activity has been removed, at least temporarily, until a new source of social media activity data becomes available.
  • 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
  • 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
  • 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
  • 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
  • 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
  • 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
  • 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
  • 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!